Who is Business Analyst?
A business analyst works as a bridge between different stakeholders in an organization. He connects with the different stakeholders of an organization to clarify and finalize the requirements, helps the project team in project planning, designing and finally validating the developed components. He is the person who possesses adequate domain knowledge and can sort the business needs amongst the stakeholders who belong to different domains.
Name some of the documents that a business analyst uses to handle?
Following are some of the common documents that a business analyst use to handle:
Project vision document
Requirement Management Plan
Requirement Traceability Matrix (RTM)
Business Requirement Document
System Requirement Specification (SRS)/ System Requirement Document (SRD)
Functional Requirement Specification (FRS)/ Functional Specification Document (FSD)
What is a requirement?
A requirement is a targeted solution to achieve specific business goals or objectives. It is an input to various stages of SDLC. This is a basis of a project, which must be validated by the stakeholders and business users before implementation. Besides that, every requirement needs to be properly documented for future reference purpose.
What is Use case?
A use case is a diagrammatic representation of a system, which describes how a user uses a system to accomplish a goal. It is an integral part of software engineering and software modeling technique which defines the targeted features and the resolution of any possible errors which a user may encounter.
What are the steps that you need to follow to design a use case?
The steps in designing use cases are:
Identify the users of the system
Creating a user profile for each category of users. This includes all roles that the users may play and relevant to the system.
Identify essential goals associated with each role. Also, identifying significant roles.
Creating use cases for every goal associated with a use case template. This also includes maintaining the same abstraction level for the entire use case. Higher level use case steps are considered as goals for the lower level.
Structuring the use cases
Reviewing and validating the users
What is Scope creep and how can you avoid scope creep?
Scope creep, or requirement creep is a term that relates to the uncontrolled changes or deviation in the project’s scope within the same resource range for example within same schedule and budget of the project. It’s an indication of poor project management and a viable risk to a project. Some of the possible causes of scope creep are:
Poor communication between the project’s stakeholders
Improper documentation of the project’s requirements
Scope creep could be avoided by:
Clear documentation about the project scope
Following proper change management
Prior intimation about the effects of the changes to the associated parties
Proper documentation of the new requirements in the project log
Refrain from Gold Plating, which means adding extra features to the existing functionalities
What is BRD? How is it different from SRS?
A Business Requirements Document (BRD) is a formal contract between the customer and the organization for a product.
The difference between BRD and SRS are as follows:
It is a high-level functional specification of the software. It is a high level functional and technical specification of the software
It is a formal document to describe the requirement provided by the client (written, verbal) It describes the functional and non-functional requirements of the software to be developed
The Business Analyst creates it after their direct interaction with the clients The System Architect creates it as it needs technical expertise. Though sometimes Bas too can create it.
It is derived based on the requirements and client interaction It is derived from the BRS
What is Gap Analysis?
Gap Analysis is a technique to analyze the gap between the existing system and functionalities, and the targeted system. Here gap means the amount of task or change that may be required to get the intended result. It’s a performance level comparison between the present and the proposed functionalities.
What is requirement prioritization? What are the different techniques used for it?
Requirements prioritization is the process to allocate requirements based on the business urgency to different phases, schedule, cost, etc.
What is the requirement elicitation technique?
Requirement elicitation is the process of requirement gathering from stakeholders, users, and customers by conducting meetings, questionnaires, interviews, brainstorming prototyping, sessions, etc.
What are non-functional requirements and how do you capture them?
Non-functional requirements represent the performance level characteristics like how fast it can respond, how smooth is a user interface, security, etc. of the application under development (AUD).
No functional requirements are captured in the SRS document in its designated section.
How will you define a good quality requirement as a business analyst?
We can measure the quality of a requirement using SMART rule. As per this rule, a good quality requirement should be:
Specific: The requirement should be specific and could be documented properly
Measurable: Different parameters can measure the success criteria of the requirement
Attainable: The requirement should be feasible within the scope of the given resources
Relevant: The requirement must be in line with the project’s business case
Timely: The requirement should be communicated early in the project lifecycle
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Which documents are used to capture non-functional requirements?
There are two documents that are used to capture non-functional requirements, and they are:
SDD (System Design Document)
FRD (Functional Requirement Document)
What is alternate flow in use case diagram?
It is an alternative solution or activity in a use case that should be followed in case of any failure in the system.
Personas represent User-Centered Design methodologies. To enable an application capable of performing on a demographic basis, fictional characters are conceptualized by the business analysts and based on their possible demographic specific behavior scenarios are created during design.
What is an activity diagram and what are the important elements of it?
An activity diagram is a visual representation of the workflow of a business use case. This diagram shows various activities that take place in an organization in different departments like HR, Sales, Accounts, etc. The activity diagram highlights the differences in the departments.
The important elements in Activity diagram are initial nodes, activities, control flows, decisions, a fork, guard conditions, join and end nodes.
What is the fundamental difference between a requirement and need in a business analysis perspective?
Needs are high-level definitions of the future goals of a business. Whereas, Requirements are the representation of the detailed description of that business needs.
What is UML modelling?
UML stands for Unified Modelling Language. It is a standard that the industry uses for documenting, constructing and visualizing various components of a system. This modelling standard is primarily used for software development. However, it is also used for describing job roles, organizational functions, and business processes. Some of the important diagrams that BAs use as part of UML are the class diagram, state diagrams and use cases.
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What are the best practices to follow while writing a use case?
Some of the best practices to write a use case are as follows:
To become a valid use case, the use case must provide some value back to the actor or stakeholder.
The functional and non-functional requirements must be captured appropriately in the use case.
The use case must have one or more alternate flow along with the main flow.
The use case should only describe what the system does and not how it is done which means it will not describe the design. It will act as a black box from the viewpoint of an actor.
The use case should not have any, i.e. it should be stand alone
What is the difference between exception flow and alternate flow?
Alternate flow are the alternative actions that can be performed apart for the main flow and can be considered as an optional flow.
Exception flow is the path traversed in case of any exception or error.
Do you think a business analyst should be involved in testing?
Yes. Because a business analyst understands the overall system requirements and challenges associated with it very well. Hence, he can be instrumental during the testing phase to run it appropriately and resolve any system related query.
What does INVEST stand for?
INVEST stands for –
It can assist project managers and technical team to deliver quality products/services.
What is Pareto Analysis?
Pareto Analysis, which is also known as 80/20 rule, is a decision-making technique. It is a useful technique for defect resolution and quality control. As per this analysis rule, 20 % causes create 80 % effects in a system, which is why it is named as 80/20 rule.